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Vascular Plants of the Elfin Forest

                                                                                   
                                                B       C      H P    C      
                                    F l o a h    o
                                    o o l b o n
                          r o o i t f
Scientific Name Common Name m m r t o m Notes
Abronia umbellata Beach sand-verbena Gc 5-10 P sd 📷                        
Achillea millefolium Yarrow H 4-5 W s 📷 Y16            
Acmispon glaber Deerweed S 3-8 Y sc 📷 K13 fka: Lotus scoparius
Acmispon junceus Rush deerweed S 4-6 Y sc 📷 fka: Lotus junceus
Adenostoma fasciculatum Chamise S 3-8 W c 📷 K13            
Amsinckia spectabilis var. microcarpa Small fruit seaside fiddleneck H 2-6 Y sd 📷 K13            
Anagallis arvensis ● Scarlet pimpernel Sh 3-6 O d 📷 M16
Anaphalis margaritacea Pearly everlasting H 6-8 W s 📷            
Aphyllon fasciculatum Clustered broomrape Sh 3-7 Y s 📷 Y16 Parasitic
Apiastrum angustifolium Mock-celery 📷 K13            
Arctostaphylos morroensis Morro manzanita TS 2-3 W z 📷 K13 Federally Listed: Threatened Species
Artemisia californica California sagebrush S 4-12 W sc 📷 K13            
Artemisia douglasiana Mugwort 📷 K13            
Asparagus asparagoides ●● African asparagus fern V 3-6 W o 📷 K13 Very invasive in oak groves.
Astragalus pomonensis Pomona milk-vetch H 1-10 C sd 📷 K13            
Atriplex patula Spear oracle H 7-11 I m 📷 K13            
Atriplex watsonii Watson’s saltbush H 8-10 I m 📷 K13            
Avena barbata ● Slender wild oats G 3-6 I d 📷            
Avena fatua ● Common wild oats G 3-6 I d 📷 K13            
Baccharis glutinosa Marsh baccharis 📷 K13            
Baccharis pilularis Coyote brush S 3-12 Y sc 📷 K13 Male – yellow FL Female – white FL
Bolboschoenus maritimus ssp. paludosus Saltmarsh bulrush 📷 K13            
Bolboschoenus robustus Sturdy bulrush H 6 I k 📷 K13 Likely an introgression from B. maritimus
Brachypodium distachyon ●● False brome G
I d 📷                        
Brassica nigra ●● Black Mustard H 1-7 Y d 📷
Brassica rapa ●● Rape mustard 📷
Briza maxima ● Rattlesnake grass 📷 K13            
Bromus carinatus California brome G 4-7 I d 📷            
Bromus diandrus ●● Ripgut brome G 4-7 I d 📷 K13            
Bromus hordeaceus ● Soft chess brome G 4-7 I d 📷 K13            
Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens ●● Foxtail brome G 4-7 I d 📷 K13            
Bromus tectorum ●● Cheatgrass G 6-7 I d 📷                        
Calandrinia ciliata Red maids H 2-5 R d 📷                        
Calyptridium monandrum Common pussypaws H 3-6 R d 📷                        
Calystegia macrostegia Island morning glory H 3-8 W s 📷 Y16            
Camissonia strigulosa Contorted sun cup H 4-8 Y sd 📷                        
Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia Beach evening primrose H 4-8 Y sd 📷 K13            
Camissoniopsis micrantha Spencer primrose H 4-8 Y sd 📷                        
Cardamine californica Milk maids H 6-8 W o 📷 K13            
Cardamine oligosperma Bitter cress H 3-6 W kr 📷 K13            
Cardionema ramosissimum Sand-mat Gc 4-8 I s 📷 K13            
Carduus pycnocephalus ●● Italian thistle H 4-7 L d 📷 N16            
Carex barbarae Santa Barbara sedge H 3-8 I km 📷 K13            
Carex globosa Round fruit sedge 📷 K13            
Carex obnupta Slough sedge 📷
Carpobrotus chilensis ● Sea fig H 4-9 P d 📷
Carpobrotus edulis ●● Hottentot fig H 4-10 P d 📷 K13            
Ceanothus cuneatus Buck brush S 1-4 W c 📷 K13
Centaurea melitensis ●● Tocalote H 3-9 Y d 📷
Cerastium glomeratum ● Mouse-ear chickweed Sh 3-7 W dc 📷
Chenopodium berlandieri Pit-seeded goosefoot 📷 K13            
Chenopodium californicum California goosefoot H 3-7 I d 📷 Y16
Chorizanthe angustifolia Narrow-leaf spineflower Sh 3-7 W d 📷 K13            
Chorizanthe diffusa Diffuse spineflower Sh 3-7 W d 📷
Cirsium occidentale var.occidentale Cobwebby thistle H 4-7 P so 📷 K13            
Cirsium vulgare ● Bull thistle H 6-10 L d 📷
Claytonia perfoliata Miner's lettuce Sh 2-5 W oz 📷 N16
Conicosia pugioniformis ●● Narrow-leaved iceplant Sh 5-10 Y d 📷 K13
Corethrogyne filaginifolia California aster S 8-12 PY sc 📷 K13 fka: Lessingia filaginifolia
Cotula coronopifolia ● Brass buttons H 3-12 Y km 📷
Crassula connata Pygmy-weed Sh 2-5 W sc 📷 M14
Crocanthemum scoparium Peak rush-rose S 4-8 Y sc 📷 K13 fka: Helianthemum scoparium
Croton californicus California croton Sh 3-10 W s 📷 K13
Cryptantha clevelandii Cryptantha H 4-6 W sc 📷
Cuscuta pacifica Saltmarsh dodder HV 4-10 W m 📷 K13 fka: Cuscuta salina. Parasitic
Daucus pusillus Wild carrot H 4-7 W s 📷 K13            
Deinandra corymbosa ssp. corymbosa Coastal tarweed Sh 3-5 Y ds                        
Delairea odorata ●● Cape ivy H 3-7 Y od 📷 K13 Highly invasive. fka: Senecio nikanioides
Descurainia pinnata Yellow tansy mustard H 3-7 Y d 📷 K13            
Dichelostemma capitatum Blue dicks H 2-6 B c 📷 N15            
Distichlis spicata Saltgrass G 4-7 I m 📷 K13            
Dryopteris arguta Wood fern H
I o,s 📷 K13 Reproduces with spores
Dudleya caespitosa Coast dudleya H 5-7 Y s, c 📷 K13            
Dudleya lanceolata Coastal dudleya H 5-7 Y sc 📷 K13            
Ehrharta calycina ●● Veldt grass G 3-7+ I d 📷 K13 Spikelets reddish. Very invasive.
Ehrharta erecta ●● Panic veldtgrass G
I d 📷 M14 grows in oak groves.
Eleocharis rostellata Spikerush H 5-7 I kr 📷 K13            
Elymus condensatus Giant wildrye 📷 K13            
Epilobium ciliatum Willow-herb H 5-8 W kr 📷 K13
Equisetum hyemale Common scouring-rush H 3-6 W dm 📷 K13            
Equisetum telmateia Giant horsetail H -- -- r 📷 K13 Not a flowering plant
Eriastrum densifolium ssp. densifolium Wooly star H 6-10 B s 📷 K13            
Ericameria ericoides Mock heather S 8-9 Y s 📷 K13            
Erigeron canadensis Common horseweed 📷 K13            
Eriogonum parvifolium Dune buckwheat S 5-10 W s 📷 K13 Flower ages to pink then rust
Eriophyllum confertiflorum Golden-yarrow S 2-7 Y sc 📷 K13            
Eriophyllum multicaule Many-stem woolly sunflower Sh 3-5 Y sc 📷 K13            
Eriophyllum staechadifolium Seaside golden-yarrow S 3-12 Y s 📷 K13            
Erodium botrys ● Storkbill filaree H 3-5 L d 📷            
Erodium cicutarium ● Red-stem filaree H 2-5 P d 📷 N15            
Erysimum suffrutescens Suffrutescent wallflower H 3-5 Y s 📷 K13 CNPS: rank = 4.2
Eschscholzia californica California poppy H 2-9 YO sc 📷 K13            
Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia Eucrypta H 5-6 W sc 📷 K13            
Euphorbia peplus ● Petty spurge H 2-8 W d 📷                        
Festuca arundinacea ● Tall fescue G 3-7 I d 📷 K13            
Festuca myuros ● Rattail fescue G 3-5 I c 📷 K13 fka: Vulpia myuros
Festuca octoflora Six-weeks fescue G 4-6 I c 📷             fka: Vulpia octoflora
Festuca perennis ● Perennial ryegrass G
I d 📷             fka: Lolium perenne
Festuca pratensis Meadow fescue 📷             Mis-ID of species above?
Festuca rubra California fescue G
                        📷 K13            
Foeniculum vulgare ●● Fennel H 5-9 Y d 📷 K13            
Frangula californica California coffeeberry S 4-7 Y s 📷 K13 fka: Rhamnus californica
Frankenia salina Alkali heath H 6-10 L m 📷 K13            
Galium aparine Common bedstraw 📷 K13            
Galium porrigens Climbing bedstraw H 4-7 W c 📷 K13
Geranium dissectum ● Cut-leaf geranium H 3-5 P d 📷 K13            
Hedera helix ●● English ivy H
I o 📷             ID TBD….. Algerian ivy (H. canariensis)
Hedypnois cretica ● Crete weed                                                 📷 K13            
Hesperocnide tenella Western nettle H 1-4 I oc 📷 N15            
Heteromeles arbutifolia Toyon T 1-4 W c 📷 K13            
Heterotheca grandiflora Telegraph weed H 1-12 Y so 📷 K13            
Hirschfeldia incana ● Perennial mustard H 3-10 Y d 📷            
Hordeum murinum ● Foxtail barley G 4-7 I sc 📷            
Horkelia cuneata ssp. cuneata Wedgeleaf horkelia H 3-7 WY sc 📷 K13            
Hydrocotyle verticillata Whorled marsh pennywort Sh 3-8 Y k 📷 K13            
Hypochaeris glabra ● Smooth cat's ear H 3-9 W d 📷 K13            
Isocoma menziesii var. vernonioides Menzie’s goldenbush S 4-12 Y sm 📷 K13            
Isolepis cernua Dwarf bullrush H 5-12 Y m 📷 K13 fka: Scirpus cernuus
Jaumea carnosa Fleshy jaumea H 5-12 Y m 📷 K13            
Juncus acutus ssp. leopoldii Southwestern spiny rush H 5-12 I m 📷 K13 CNPS: rank = 4.2
Juncus bufonius Toad rush H 4-9 I k 📷                        
Juncus hesperius Coast or Bog rush H 📷 K13            
Koeleria macrantha Junegrass H
I ds 📷                        
Lamarckia aurea ● Goldentop G 2-5 I d 📷             Flower golden to purplish
Layia hieracioides Tall layia H 4-5 Y so 📷                        
Layia platyglossa Tidy tips H 3-6 WY so 📷                        
Lepidium draba ●● Hoary cress H 3-6 W dm 📷                        
Limonium californicum Sea lavender H 1-11 L m 📷 K13            
Lobularia maritima ● Sweet alyssum H 1-12 W d 📷                        
Lonicera hispidula var. vacillans California honeysuckle V 4-7 P o 📷 K13            
Lotus corniculatus ● Birdfoot trefoil H 1-9 Y k 📷                        
Lupinus arboreus Yellow bush lupine S 3-6 Y s 📷                        
Lupinus bicolor Miniature lupine H 3-5 BW sd 📷                        
Lupinus chamissonis Silver dune lupine S 3-7 BW s 📷 K13            
Madia sativa Coast tarweed H 5-6 Y c 📷                        
Malva parviflora ● Cheeseweed H 3-10 P d 📷                        
Marah fabaceus Wild cucumber H 2-4 WY sco 📷 K13
Matricaria discoidea ● Pineapple weed Sh 4-8 Y d 📷 N15 fka: Chamomilla suaveolens
Medicago polymorpha ● Burclover H 3-6 Y d 📷                        
Melica imperfecta Smallflower melicgrass G 4-5 I c, s 📷 N15            
Melilotus albus ● White sweet-clover H 4-10 W d 📷                        
Melilotus indicus ● Yellow sweet-clover H 4-10 Y d 📷 K13 AKA: M. indica
Mimulus aurantiacus Sticky monkey-flower S 3-8 O sc 📷 K13            
Morella californica California wax-myrtle TS 4-7 W s 📷 K13 fka: Myrica californica
Mucronea californica California spineflower H 4-7 W sc 📷 K13 CNPS: rank = 4.2
Nuttallanthus texanus Blue toadflax H 3-5 B co 📷 Y17 fka: Linaria canadensis
Oenanthe sarmentosa Water parsley H 6-10 W k 📷 K13            
Paeonia californica California peony H 12-3 R sc 📷 K13            
Parietaria hespera Pellitory H 3-5 R s 📷                        
Persicaria punctata Dotted smartweed            

📷 K13            
Phacelia (several) Phacelia H 2-5                                                            
Pholisma arenarium Pholisma H 4-8 WL sc 📷 K13 Parasitic
Pholistoma auritum Fiesta flower H 3-5 L s 📷                        
Phragmites australis ● Common reed 📷 K13 Native to Calif. but not Elfin Forest
Piperia michaelii Rein orchid H 6-8 W o 📷 K13 K13 CNPS: rank = 4.2
Plagiobothrys nothofulvus Popcorn flower H 3-5 W s 📷                        
Plantago coronopus ● Cutleaf plantain H 3-6 W dm 📷 K13            
Plantago lanceolata ● English plantain H 4-8 C d 📷 K13            
Polycarpon depressum Polycarp Sh 4-6 W sc 📷 K13            
Polygonum aviculare ● Common knotweed H 5-11 W d 📷             fka: Polygonum arenastrum
Potentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Pacific silverweed H 5-10 Y m 📷 K13
Prunus fasciculata var. punctata Dune almond S 3-4 C s 📷 K13 CNPS: rank = 4.3
Prunus ilicifolia Hollyleaf cherry S 2-4 W s 📷 K13            
Pseudognaphalium biolettii Bicolored cudweed H 1-6 C s 📷 K13 fka: Gnaphalium bicolor
Pseudognaphalium californicum California everlasting H 1-7 WY c 📷 K13 fka: Gnaphalium californicum
Pseudognaphalium ramosissimum Pink everlasting H 6-9 P sc 📷 K13 K13 fka: Gnaphalium ramosissimum
Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens Bracken fern H
I os 📷 K13 Reproduces with spores
Quercus agrifolia Coast live oak TS 3-4 I o 📷 K13            
Raphanus sativus ● Wild radish H 2-7 L d 📷                        
Rhamnus crocea Redberry S 3-4 C s 📷 K13            
Ribes divaricatum var. pubiflorum Straggly gooseberry 📷 K13            
Ribes menziesii Canyon gooseberry S                                     📷 K13            
Ribes speciosum Fuchsia-flowered gooseberry S 1-5 R sc 📷 K13            
Rosa californica California wild rose S 5-8 P s 📷 K13            
Rosa spithamea Coast ground rose H 3-6 W dm 📷 K13            
Rubus ursinus California blackberry S 2-5 W so 📷 K13            
Rumex acetosella ● Sour-dock H 3-8 O d 📷                        
Rumex crispus ● Curly dock H 4-8 Y d 📷                        
Rumex occidentalis Western dock H 📷 K13            
Ruppia maritima Ditch Grass



📷 K13 In salt water ponds
Salicornia bigelovii Dwarf glasswort



📷 K13 aka Annual pickleweed
Salicornia pacifica Pacific pickleweed H 7-11 W m 📷 K13 fka: Salicornia virginica
Salix lasiolepis Arroyo willow TS 2-5 I r 📷 K13            
Salvia mellifera Black sage S 4-7 W sc 📷 K13            
Sanicula crassicaulis Pacific snakeroot H 3-4 Y dm 📷 K13            
Schismus arabicus ● Mediterranean grass H
I d 📷                        
Schoenoplectus acutus var. occidentalis Tule H 5-8 I k 📷 K13 fka: Scirpus acutus var. occidentalis
Schoenoplectus americanus American threesquare H 6-8 I k 📷 K13 fka: Scirpus americanus
Schoenoplectus californicus California tule H 6-9 I k 📷 K13 fka: Scirpus californicus
Scirpus microcarpus Small-headed bulrush H 3-7 I k 📷 K13            
Scrophularia californica California figwort H 2-6 R co 📷 K13            
Scutellaria tuberosa Common skullcap H 3-5 B s 📷                        
Senecio blochmaniae Dune ragwort H 6-10 Y s 📷 N15 CNPS: rank = 4.2
Senecio californicus California groundsel H 3-5 Y s 📷                        
Setaria viridis ● Green bristlegrass G 6-8 I d 📷                        
Silene gallica ● Windmill pink H 4-10 WP d 📷                        
Silene laciniata ssp. laciniata Indian pink H 5-6 R s 📷 K13 fka: Silene laciniata ssp. major
Solanum douglasii White nightshade H 5-9 WY os 📷 K13            
Solanum xanti Purple nightshade H 5-8 L s 📷 K13            
Solidago confinis Southern goldenrod                                                 📷 K13            
Sonchus asper ● Prickly sow thistle H 3-6 W d 📷                        
Sonchus oleraceus ● Common sow thistle H 3-9 Y d 📷                        
Sparganium eurycarpum var. eurycarpum Bur-reed 📷 K13            
Spergularia marina ● Saltmarsh sand-spurrey H 6-11 W m 📷                        
Stachys bullata California hedge nettle H 4-9 P o 📷 K13            
Stellaria media ● Common chickweed H 📷 K13            
Stephanomeria elata Santa Barbara wirelettuce H 6-10 P sc 📷 K13            
Stephanomeria virgata ssp. virgata Rod wirelettuce H 6-10 P sc 📷 K13            
Symphoricarpos mollis Creeping snowberry H 5-6 P o 📷 K13            
Toxicodendron diversilobum Poison oak S 4-5 I os 📷 K13
Triglochin concinna Arrow-grass H 3-8 I m 📷 K13            
Turritis glabra Tower mustard 📷 K13            
Typha latifolia Cattail H 6-7 I k 📷 K13            
Uropappus lindleyi Silver puff H 4-6 Y c 📷 M14            
Urtica dioica Stinging nettle H 6-9 W o 📷 K13            
Urtica urens ● Dwarf nettle H 4-6 I d 📷             Mis-ID of species above?
Vicia gigantea Giant vetch 📷 K13            
Polypodium californicum California polypody 📷 N16            



The vascular plant list is the product of many people's efforts extending from well before the Elfin Forest officially came into existance as a natural area preserve. The list that this table superceeds dates from 2005 - the publication date of SWAP's "Plants and Animals of the Elfin Forest Natural Area - A Pocket Guide".

Recently, Dr. David J. Keil, Curator of the Robert F. Hoover Herbarium at CalPoly, spent considerable time and effort in the Elfin Forest to confirm and update the list. Dr. Keil was able to confirm 138 of the species as being present. 12 were removed from the list as being confirmed "not present" - previous misidentifications, extripated by nature or by the Weed Warriors. 22 new plants were added (of these 6 replace plants that were most likely misidentified previously which will probably be removed from the list). Dr. Keil notes that 23 of the original scientific names have changed in the intervening 10 years.

Thank you, David!

 





 

Scientific Name – Authoritive name in the order Genus + species, occasionally followed by var. (varitity) or ssp. (subspieces). Clicking on the scientific name will bring up Calflora's listing for that plant; see "Calflora" below.

  ● = non-native species
●● = non-native species which is or has the potential to negatively impact the native species of the Elfin Forest.

Common Name – A vernacular name for a species often used in local area. Most plants are known by multiple common names.

Form
       T = tree
       S = shrub
       H = herb
       Sh = short herb – under 6”
       V = vine
       G = grass
       Gc = ground cover.

(Some plants have more than one form within the Forest because of local environmental conditions.)

Bloom – the months in which a plant “normally” blooms. Weather can changes these dates. Some plants bloom nearly all year round in the Forest’s mild climate,  for them “Bloom” = peak period


 KEY



Habit(at)
– refers to plant association or complex:
     c = maritime chaparral
     d = disturbed (open sand)
     k = brackish water marsh
     m = coastal salt marsh – vegetated
     o = coast live oak woodland
     r = riparian
     s = coastal dune scrub
     u = mud flat – unvegitated tidal lands and channels
     z = oak/manzanita complex

Color –
predominant color(s) of blooms.
       W = white
       Y = yellow
       O = orange
       R = red
       P = pink
       B = blue
       L = lavender or purple
       C = cream
       I = indistinct.

Where bloom has a definite two colored pattern, it is shown like “WY” – white outside/yellow center, etc.

Cfm –
"Confirmed" means the presence of the species has been confirmed since the 2005 list. "K13" indicates Dr. Keil found the plant present in 2013; "N15" = Al Normandin 2015, "M14" indicates Bob Meyer 2014, and "Y16" indicates Yolanda Waddell 2016. More plant IDers to be added.
 

Calflora is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing information about California plant biodiversity for use in Education, Research and Conservation. Calflora is structured as a digital database and library. It lists over 8,000 plants (native and non-native) found in California. Clicking on the scientic name in the above table will take you to that plant's listing in Calflora from there your only one more click away from many other sources of information. It can be used as a gateway to several databases not the least of which "eFlora" the electronic version of the Jepson Manual maintained by The University Herbarium (UC Bedrkely) and Jepson Herbarium. Try it; you'll like it.

California State Parks and Recreation's local staff, with a mini-grant from MBNEP, has created an excellent study of the native vascular plants of the Estero Bay area. There are two versions. One is 182 pages and the other is a compact 73 pages. The compact version was generated from the larger version by deleting an extensive section on plant communities, plus reducing the table and photo sizes. You can download either below:

 "Native Flora of Estero Bay" (40.3 MB)  The full sized version

 "Native Flora of Estero Bay"  (11.5 MB) The abreviated version